Healthy kidneys are vital to our well-being. Systemic disorders like Diabetes and hypertension might lead to renal damage. Kidneys are the waste filtration system of the body as millions of blood vessels filter blood to remove waste. Higher levels of blood glucose and blood pressure associated with Diabetes damage kidneys, decreasing their filtering ability. Overwork causes the filtering system to break down. Waste products build up resulting in kidney disease (Nephropathy).
Nephrology is a branch of medical science that deals with normal functioning as well as the diseases of the kidneys. It deals with preventing and treating renal damage.
The diseases that come under the scope of nephrology include:-
Glomerular disorders that affect the tiny filtering systems of the kidneys called the glomerulus
Urine abnormalities such as excess excretion of protein, sugar, blood, casts, crystals etc indicating Nephrotic and nephritis syndrome.
Tubulointerstitial diseases affecting the tubules in the kidneys
Renal vascular diseases affecting the blood vessel networks within the kidneys
Renal failure that can be sudden or acute kidney disease and long term or chronic kidney disease
Effects of diseases like diabetes and high blood pressure on kidneys
Acid base and electrolyte disturbances
Ill effects of drugs and toxins on the kidneys
Dialysis and its long term complications – dialysis includes hemodialysis as well as peritoneal dialysis
Autoimmune diseases including autoimmune vasculitis, lupus, etc.
Polycystic kidneys diseases where large cysts or fluid filled sacs are formed within the kidney impairing its functions – this is a congenital condition